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PRKAR1B MTOR (1 - 2 of 2)
PMID: 18086876
Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated up-regulation of beta-cell antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression is coordinated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2.
... involving cAMP/PKA/AMPK-dependent regulation of CREB/TORC2 activity ...   (details)

PRKAR1B MTOR

Type:  positive regulation
Is this interaction correct?
Yes
No

Comments

Cause:  PKA   (PRKACB   PRKACG   PRKAR1A   PRKAR1B   PRKAR2A   PRKAR2B )
Theme:  TORC2   (MLST8   RICTOR   MTOR )

PMID: 18086876

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated up-regulation of beta-cell antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression is coordinated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2.
Source

Molecular and cellular biology (March 2008)

Abstract

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated up-regulation of beta-cell antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression is coordinated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB) and cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2. The cyclic AMP (cAMP) /protein kinase A (PKA) cascade plays a central role in beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we show that the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) stimulates expression of the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene in pancreatic beta cells through a pathway involving AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), cAMP-responsive CREB coactivator 2 (TORC2), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). Stimulation of beta-INS-1 (clone 832/13) cells with GIP resulted in increased Bcl-2 promoter activity. Analysis of the rat Bcl-2 promoter revealed two potential cAMP response elements, one of which (CRE-I [GTGACGTAC]) was shown, using mutagenesis and deletion analysis, to be functional. Subsequent studies established that GIP increased the nuclear localization of TORC2 and phosphorylation of CREB serine 133 through a pathway involving PKA activation and reduced AMPK phosphorylation. At the nuclear level, phospho-CREB and TORC2 were demonstrated to bind to CRE-I of the Bcl-2 promoter, and GIP treatment resulted in increases in their interaction. Furthermore, GIP-mediated cytoprotection was partially reversed by small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in BCL-2 or TORC2/CREB or by pharmacological activation of AMPK. The antiapoptotic effect of GIP in beta cells is therefore partially mediated through a novel mode of transcriptional regulation of Bcl-2 involving cAMP/PKA/AMPK-dependent regulation of CREB/TORC2 activity.

PMID: 20131403
Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent liver cyst growth in polycystin-2-defective mice.
... that PKA-dependent up-regulation of mTOR has ...   (details)

PRKAR1B MTOR

Type:  positive regulation
Is this interaction correct?
Yes
No

Comments

Cause:  PKA   (PRKACB   PRKACG   PRKAR1A   PRKAR1B   PRKAR2A   PRKAR2B )

PMID: 20131403

Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent liver cyst growth in polycystin-2-defective mice.
Source

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.; May 2010)

Abstract

Mammalian target of rapamycin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent liver cyst growth in polycystin-2-defective mice. Polycystic liver disease may complicate autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a disease caused by mutations in polycystins, which are proteins that regulate signaling, morphogenesis, and differentiation in epithelial cells. The cystic biliary epithelium [liver cystic epithelium (LCE)] secretes vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which promotes liver cyst growth via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) and the protein kinase A (PKA) -dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) are also up-regulated in LCE. We have hypothesized that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) represents a common pathway for the regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha) -dependent VEGF secretion by IGF1 and ERK1/2. Conditional polycystin-2-knockout (Pkd2KO) mice were used for in vivo studies and to isolate cystic cholangiocytes [liver cystic epithelial cells (LCECs)]. The expression of p-mTOR, VEGF, cleaved caspase 3 (CC3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), IGF1, IGF1R, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-P70S6K, HIF1alpha, and VEGF in LCE, LCECs, and wild-type cholangiocytes was studied with immunohistochemistry, western blotting, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The cystic area was measured by computer-assisted morphometry of pancytokeratin-stained sections. Cell proliferation in vitro was studied with 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl) -2- (4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium and bromodeoxyuridine assays. The treatment of Pkd2KO mice with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin significantly reduced the liver cyst area, liver/body weight ratio, pericystic microvascular density, and PCNA expression while increasing expression of CC3. Rapamycin inhibited IGF1-stimulated HIF1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in LCECs. IGF1-stimulated LCEC proliferation was inhibited by rapamycin and SU5416 (a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 inhibitor). Phosphorylation of the mTOR-dependent kinase P70S6K was significantly reduced by PKA inhibitor 14-22 amide and by the mitogen signal-regulated kinase inhibitor U1026. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that PKA-dependent up-regulation of mTOR has a central role in the proliferative, antiapoptotic, and pro-angiogenic effects of IGF1 and VEGF in polycystin-2-defective mice. This study also highlights a mechanistic link between PKA, ERK, mTOR, and HIF1alpha-mediated VEGF secretion and provides a proof of concept for the potential use of mTOR inhibitors in ADPKD and conditions with aberrant cholangiocyte proliferation.